AdvisorNews - February 2013
Even though Roth 401(k)s have been around a few years, a number of employers have yet to offer them to plan participants.
Initially incorporated in the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, the Roth 401(k) option became available for the first time on January 1, 2006.
How They Work
You pay taxes on the money you defer into the Roth 401(k) before making the contribution, while the taxes on your pretax 401(k) contributions are deferred until they are withdrawn. When you withdraw the Roth 401(k) contributions, you pay no taxes on them—you have already done so. However, with a Roth 401(k), you also can withdraw earnings on those contributions without paying taxes on them, so long as the distribution is made at least five years after the first Roth contribution and you have attained the age of 59½, unless an exception applies. Earnings on your 401(k) contributions, though, will be taxed when you withdraw them.
Since contributions to Roth 401(k)s are on an after-tax basis, those who expect their tax rates to be the same or greater in retirement are the best candidates for a Roth. But, in today’s political and economic climate, most would predict that taxes will certainly not be lower.
If you are just starting your working career, you probably pay taxes at the lowest rate you will ever see, since you will probably (hopefully!) be more highly compensated later in your career. That is why it is a good idea to pay the lower taxes now, rather than higher taxes later.
If you are an older worker with a higher income, a Roth 401(k) may still be a good bet. Many older employees are working longer and so will still be in a higher tax bracket, especially when they start withdrawals. If you have been contributing enough funds to your retirement plan to generate an income stream appropriate to your lifestyle, then you almost certainly will be in a higher bracket when you start withdrawing funds. However, with a traditional 401(k), you must take required minimum distributions (RMDs) starting the year after you turn age 70½ and will be taxed on every penny. And while there may be RMDs with a Roth 401(k), none are required from a regular Roth individual retirement account (IRA). So, upon leaving a job or upon retirement, you could simply roll the Roth 401(k) into a Roth IRA.
Young or not so young, you still get tax-free money with a Roth 401(k). Once you meet the five-year “holding” requirement, you may withdraw contributions and earnings free of income tax. With a traditional 401(k), on the other hand, all withdrawals—contributions and earnings—are taxable.
While every situation is different, a Roth 401(k) may be the best place for you to allocate a portion of your retirement savings. At the very least, the plan is worth a second look.
By Christopher Carosa, CTFA | October 23, 2012
(The following is the second in a five-part series of articles devoted to helping fiduciaries, especially individual trustees and ERISA plan sponsors, best align investment goals with beneficiaries’ needs.)
When we put out a question to our network of financial professionals, we usually get enough more than enough responses to fill our needs. When we put out this particular question, we couldn’t believe the amount of messages in our e-mail. In fact, we recived so many thoughts, ideas and opinions from so many professionals, it’s impossible to use all the answers. To do so would produce an article whose length would rival a novella. Despite this volume, we analyzed the answers and categorized them into three general categories. These represent the three most common investor mistakes all investors should avoid. And when we say all investors, that includes both the average investor as well as individual trustees and ERISA plan sponsors.
Common Mistake #1: Trying to “beat” the Market – or trying to “beat” anything, for that matter. Conservative investors refer to this mockingly as the “horse race mentality.” Let’s confront this most common mistake made by investors: John Graves, editor at The Retirement Journal in Ventura, California and author of The 7% Solution, says, “Chasing performance is a mistake [because] a. You are too late to the game, [and] b. The last one at the dance is the first to go home.” Robert W. Kowaleski of Professional Wealth Management in Hauppauge, New York likens chasing performance to “a dog Chasing its tail. How far did the dog get when it was done and did it ever catch its tail?”
Rarely, if ever, will a trust document or investment policy statement demand the trustee or fiduciary “beat” the market. Trustors create trusts and lawyers draft trust documents solely for the benefit of named beneficiaries. While it may be advantageous to have an investment portfolio which “beats” the market, and many trusts do have investment portfolios which “beat” the market, this represents the result of a sound investment discipline and not the result of any specific dictate.
Why do investors commit this ever popular common mistake? Robert L. Riedl, Director of Wealth Management at Sumnicht & Associates, LLC in Appleton, Wisconsin, believes “They have no plans, no financial objectives and lack independent professional advice. Thus, they don’t know what they don’t know and that increases their opportunity to make random decisions that will increase their risks and opportunity to fail.”
Indeed, goals should be tied to something more tangible, such as paying a set amount in expenses, making specific purchases (for example, buying a car or a house), paying college tuition or living a comfortable retirement to name just a few. “Many investors do not define the purpose of their accounts,” says Damian Rothermel of Rothermel Financial Services in Portland, Oregon.
The true goal, then, represents the lifetime goals or dreams of the beneficiary (or investor). These may be specifically defined in the trust document or, more likely, require an interview with the beneficiary (or investor) to fully determine the goals and nature of the portfolio’s investment policy statement. In the latter case, such interviews need to be conducted on a periodic basis and certainly after any major life event (marriage, birth of a child, etc…) to insure the goals and dreams have not changed significantly. “It doesn’t happen too often that people ‘accidentally’ save too much,” says Hilary Martin, a financial advisor for The Family Wealth Consulting Group in San Jose, California. “It’s important,” continues Martin, “to know your own cash flow requirements and plan for increased expenses for things like travel and health care.”
To summarize this common mistake, the individual trustee, retirement plan fiduciary, or regular investor cannot treat investing like an athletic contest. Targeting arbitrary hurdles quickly leads to undisciplined and, in the end, unproductive, investment management. Why? It is extremely unlikely that any conservative, long term investment portfolio can “beat” any arbitrary index during every single time period (thus is the nature of “risk.”) Should the individual trustee, fiduciary or investor blindly focus on “beating” the market, he is merely chasing performance. This easily degrades into excessive investment adviser turnover as the investor is always firing the existing adviser (or mutual fund) to hire last year’s best performer. Alas, this kind of activity results in something similar to buying high and selling low; thus, the investment performance of the portfolio suffers considerably.
Common Mistake #2: Trying to “play it safe.” This second common mistake represents the opposite extreme of our first common mistake. Although it’s been most apparent today, particularly among younger investors still in shock from the market debacle in 2008-2009, this mistake has been with us for quite some time, particularly in the 401k investment arena. Indeed, Congress passed the 2006 Pension Protection Act in part to address the need to encourage 401k investors to place a greater portion of their retirement assets into long-term investments (and thus begat target date funds).
“Being so conservative and leaving 100% of investible assets in cash or in a shoe box is a mistake,” says Kevin Cahill of Canadian Legacy Builder in Guelph, Ontario. Cahill’s comment may appear as hyperbole, but it gets to the root of the problem of “playing it safe.” David Houle, co-founder and portfolio manager at Season Investments in Colorado Springs says, “investing too conservatively can be a mistake that results in lost opportunity and not meeting your long-term objectives. Most people who are investing too conservatively are doing so out of fear which is a dysfunctional emotion to let drive investment decisions.”
Martin explains further, “even in the long run, the expected return of bonds is something like 2-3% real. If the average investor retires at age 65, and has a life expectancy of 92 years, how are you going to provide for inflation-proof income for 27 years with a 2.5% return on half of your portfolio? I believe that is a sure-fire recipe for having too much time left at the end of your money.”
And while some investors do have the luxury to play it safe, there is clearly one segment that doesn’t. Elle Kaplan, CEO of Lexion Capital Management in New York City says, “Investing too conservatively is only a mistake if your accounts have a long time horizon and you can benefit from compounding. Younger investors that won’t be touching their account for years can take on more risk.”
In summary, as Tony Fiorillo, President/CEO of Asset Management Strategies, Inc. in Indianapolis, says, “Long term returns are better with equities (stocks) than with fixed income (bonds) and bonds can have as high a level of risk. Especially when dollar cost averaging into your 401k, and if you have years to go to retirement, you should lean heavily on the stocks in your allocation.”
Common Mistake #3: Trying to “time” the Market – or trying to time any financial asset. A related common mistake entails attempting to “time” the market. The industry defines market timing as shifting your money from one asset class to another. To work, you would have to correctly guess which asset class would have the best short-term performance and invest accordingly. Through the years, many investment “gurus” have purported to have developed a “fool-proof” method for market timing. There remains no convincing evidence that market timing works. Indeed, there is ample evidence suggesting the investor pays a steep penalty for incorrectly guessing when to shift from one asset class to another.
“Many studies show that the performance of the average investor is well below that of the markets,” says Mitchell E. Kauffman, an independent Certified Financial Planner with offices in Pasadena and Santa Barbara.” Kauffman points to one such study by Dalbar that concludes “the cost of market timing for the past 20 years is about 4% per year on average,” and adds that “during volatile times that shortfall nearly doubled to 7% for market timers.” For all the talk of fees, no aggregation of fees approaches this cost of market timing.
In a very real sense, the mistake of market timing derives from our first two mistakes. It starts with believing the tree will grow to the sky and investors searching for ways to beat the market. Then, when the bubble pops, investors decide (usually incorrectly) it’s now a good time to play it safe. Here’s a real world example provided to FiduciaryNews.com readers by Craig Lemoine, Assistant Professor of Financial Planning at The American College in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. He tells us, “In 2006 and 2007 Chinese markets doubled in value, became plastered over media outlets and discussed. I sat across from a mutual fund wholesaler who explained that the share value of the Emerging Market equity fund he was selling had increased by 200% over the past two years and that the sky was the limit. From 2007 to 2012 the same fund has experienced a -1.73% annual return. Buying after the initial growth or expansion phase will lead to a decrease in overall performance.”
Yet, for all the academic studies that provide solid proof of the folly of market timing, why do people continue to believe it works? Kauffman says “People over estimate their abilities and the simplicity of timing prompts grandiosity and excessive risk taking.” This, in part, explains why they overreact when market timing fails and why they suffer unfortunate consequences. “When investors are invested too aggressively,” says Alan Moore, founder of Serenity Financial Consulting in Milwaukee Wisconsin, “it means they can’t psychologically handle the swings in the market. This means that when the market dips, the investor will sell out of fear. This leads to locking in losses, and is a great way to wreck a retirement plan. There is a danger of being way too conservative, because the investor will not get growth in their portfolio. For most investors, they need growth in their portfolio over time in order to meet their investment goals. Being too conservative in their investments runs the risk of delaying retirement or forcing additional savings later in life.”
Another symptom of this common mistake involves trying to make a lot of money quickly. This is also related to the first common mistake. This mistake, however, can have far greater consequences. The words most associated with trying to make a lot of money quickly are “speculation” and “gambling.” Conservative investors know making a lot of money quickly requires luck more than skill. It’s not impossible, but entails a lot of risk – too much risk for the prudent investor.
Jason Hull of Hull Financial Planning in Dallas/Fort Worth asks, “How many people bought Facebook shares just because they knew Facebook? Furthermore, how many of them invested a disproportionately large amount of money into Facebook because they ‘knew’ it was going to go to the moon? When we take a big risk in investing a lot of our investable assets into one investment, then we live or die by that investment. Instead, we should look at diversifying our investments so that one bad investment doesn’t ruin our investment portfolio.”
Of course, the mailbox is full of plenty of examples of money managers who claim to have doubled or tripled their investment portfolio in two or three years. We expose the folly of these direct mail pieces by gently reminding the reader that every week across our country several people win million dollar lotteries with a single one-dollar ticket. As an individual trustee or retirement plan fiduciary, would you bet your trust’s entire investment portfolio on a single lottery ticket?
Still not convinced? Let’s give our direct mail money managers the benefit of the doubt. Let’s say their past record of lottery-like investment performance is true and accurate. We hope the reader will pause and consider how many of those weekly million dollar lottery winners win another million dollars the following week? The following year? For the remainder of their life?
For all these warnings though, it is the ease of access to “information” that most vexes investors. “The biggest mistake people make, in my opinion, is paying too much attention to all the ‘noise’ in the media (present company excluded, of course!),” says (graciously) Christopher Kimball, whose firm Christopher Kimball Financial Services is located in Lakewood, Washington. Kimball adds “Bad news sells; panic gets people’s attention. That’s why newscasters so often play chicken little and claim the investment sky is falling. Fixating on all the panicky commentators not only can result in high blood pressure, but bad investment decisions, too. Everyone knows the stock market goes up and down – it’s one of the fundamental laws of investing! As a friend of mine says, however, ‘The only people who get hurt on a roller-coaster ride are the ones who jump off.’ People have got to learn to remain calm and not listen to the doomsday sayers, whether it be on television, radio, or in print.”
If we could condense all three of these common investing mistakes into one word, that word would be “emotion.”
“People tend to react instead of plan,” says Douglas L. Nelson of TCI Wealth Advisors, Inc. in Santa Fe, New Mexico. “They buy when prices are going up and sell when they are going down. Fear and greed drive them. They think they know where the markets are going tomorrow and react instead of sticking to their plan. If anyone knows where markets are going tomorrow they will not tell us and would be wealthy beyond imagination.”
Everyone makes mistakes. There should be no fear in admitting when one makes a mistake. Mistakes aren’t always bad. Mistakes offer an excellent opportunity for us to learn. Mistakes can often lead to our greatest discoveries (see “Christopher Columbus”). In the end, though, we can accrue these very same benefits by watching – and understanding – the mistakes of others.
The three most common investor mistakes other investors have committed have been listed here.
Don’t make them.
By Tim Minard
November 9, 2012 • Reprints
Good things come in small packages—particularly when it comes to small retirement plans. In fact, small defined contribution plans are expected to experience significant growth through 2015, as small business owners seek ways to attract and retain talent, rebuild and diversify personal assets, help employees secure retirement peace of mind and save for their own retirement as well.
This creates a tremendous opportunity for financial professionals who can sell and service small plans efficiently. Each sale can help to:
- Generate a steady stream of revenue
- Create a wealth of cross-selling opportunities
- Offer access to highly qualified prospects, including business owners and executives
- An underserved market that’s big—and getting bigger
According to the U.S. Small Business Administration, the 28 million small businesses in the U.S. represent nearly 99.7 percent of all firms in the country. They employ more than half of all private sector workers accounted for three quarters of net new jobs in 2010.
At the same time, small businesses are actually less likely to have retirement plans than large companies. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports only 40 percent of companies with one to 49 employees offer a defined contribution plan, compared to 74 percent of companies with 100 to 499 employees.
Despite the potential, this market is relatively underserved. According to Cerulli and Associates, there were about 335,000 financial professionals in total in 2009, and fewer than 10 percent focused their practices on retirement plans.
The vast majority of small business owners rely on financial professionals for help with retirement plans according to Cerulli. In fact, research shows that the number one reason a plan sponsor selects a service provider is financial professional recommendation, showing the important role financial professionals play with business owners.
Where to start
To efficiently market to small employers, it’s important to keep your prospect pipeline full. You can find new prospects by
- Building relationships with centers of influence who serve small employers such as attorneys, bankers, CPAs, business brokers, etc.
- Joining local business organizations such as Rotary or the Chamber
- Networking, networking, networking
- Asking for referrals
Once you have names, do your homework before you meet with key contacts. Form 5500 is a great source of information and you may be able to identify areas of weakness and opportunity.
Retirement plans as door-openers
In addition to generating revenue from the plan itself, retirement plans can be great door-openers to grow your business with cross-selling opportunities. Our recent survey of business owners found that 65 percent of those who use a financial professional for business operations use that same financial professional for their personal financial issues.
Some cross-selling opportunities include:
- Supplemental retirement plans
- Individual financial services
- Business protection plans
- Other employee benefits programs
- How to make small plans profitable
The key to success in the small plan market is efficiency. That takes the right tools and resources so you can maximize your profits.
Plan service providers are a good source of these resources. For example, this Small Plan Resource Center offers tools, resources and support to help efficiently tap into the small plan market.
You can also benefit from the experiences of other financial professionals.
November 28, 2012 (PLANSPONSOR.com) – Franklin Templeton investigated defined contribution plan sponsors’ process for selecting plan advisers.
According to the study, "Insights on Closing the Sale," more than half of plan sponsors reviewed at least five advisers in their search. While 81% of plan sponsors actively sought advisers through recommendations or referrals from colleagues, peer organizations or retirement plan service providers, less than one-quarter of plan sponsors responded to an adviser solicitation.
When asked what criteria they used to initially screen potential advisers, plan sponsors most often cited personal fit/sales process (60%), followed by pricing (53%) and experience/expertise (44%), with prior relationship (5%) least frequently cited. When selecting an adviser from among those considered as finalists, plan sponsors continued to most frequently cite personal fit/sales process (55%) as an attribute leading to their decision.
Other attributes—most notably pricing—were greater factors in situations when the bid was lost than when the bid was won by the adviser.
The study is based on conversations between Chatham Partners and plan sponsors whose plans collectively represent more than $6 billion in assets. The study paper is available at the resource center in Franklin Templeton’s online Retirement Center. The paper addresses lead generation, prospect management and finals activity.
The 408(b)(2) fee disclosure regulation has made retirement plan fees a hot topic for employers. Advisors that proactively help their clients evaluate fees and services provide beneficial assistance and demonstrate their value.
A smart first step is to confirm that your retirement plan provider partners are putting you in the best light possible with your clients. Providers offering seamlessly executed services at a reasonable price are vital to securing your client relationships.
Advisors seek a flexible, fully integrated approach for their clients at an appropriate price. Here's just a sampling of the many ways we can help:
- Plan design focused on creating a customized design that meets each client's specific needs.
- Conversions that include a 411(d) review to validate compliance and effectiveness in addition to multiple levels of communication to keep all parties informed.
- Payroll Integration with many local payroll providers lets our clients focus on their business - not data processing.
- Required Notice Management Service offers online access to required notices.
- Employee communications address various stages of retirement savings, capture participants' attention and get them the answers and information needed to be prepared for retirement.
Help yourself and your clients by working with a provider that balances quality with appropriate fees. We'll support your role as a service-oriented problem solver for your clients with our flexible, full service, client focused approach.